Maritime Threat Picture

in collaboration with NORTH

Yemen, Assault begins on key port of Hodeidah view more

Guard fires warning shot at intruders view more

Second report of a vessel under attack off Hodeidah view more

Merchant vessel returns fire after skiff opens attack view more

Libya – Risk: Tankers and their crews being detained on suspicion of oil smuggling view more

Skiff aborts attack after alarm is raised view more

Two reports of robbers boarding ships off Indonesia view more

Reports of missile attack remain unverified view more

Pirates attack fishing boats off Suriname view more

Piracy threat in Gulf of Guinea view more

PERU - Risk: of robberies from ships in Callao view more

COTE D'IVOIRE - Risk: Difficult navigation and port conditions in Abidjan view more

Threat: Hijacking and boarding for theft in South China Sea view more

MALACCA STRAIT - Risk: robbery. Maintain strict anti-piracy and robbery watches. view more

SINGAPORE STRAIT - Risk: Armed robbery whilst transiting the Singapore Strait view more

YEMEN - Risk: January 9, 2018, Houthi rebels warn they will block traffic if Saudi-led coalition forces continued their advance on Hodeidah. view more

Risk: Syrian sanctions view more

IRAN - Risk: Iranian Sanctions view more

LIBYA - Risk: fines issued for delays in discharging at Misurata, Libya view more

Risk: Drug trafficking at Puerto Cabello, Lake Maracaibo and Orinoco River ports view more

ALGERIA - Risk: Customs fines in Algeria view more

VIETNAM - Risk: Bulk cargo shortage claims in Vietnam view more

Ice-conditions at Ukrainian ports view more

SENEGAL - Risk: Hull staining at Dakar, Senegal view more

WEST AFRICA - Risk: Drug trafficking in West African ports view more

SUDAN - Risk: Damage and shortage claims for bagged cargo in Port Sudan view more

UAE - Risk Possible delays caused by disembarking crew due to injury or sickness at Fujairah, UAE view more

VENEZUELA - Risk: Economic crisis bringing delays and deteriorating port conditions. There are also reports of piracy, the targets being small fishing vessels. view more

CAMEROON - Risk: Fines imposed for sewage treatment plant effluent non-compliance view more

CHINA - Risk: Theft from ships in Tianjin anchorage view more

GUINEA - Risk: armed robbery at Conakry Anchorage view more

PHILIPPINES - Theft from vessels in Manila and Batangas view more

VENEZUELA - Risk: Delays due to hull cleaning in Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela view more

SENEGAL - Risk: Fines for inaccurate bunker customs declarations in the port of Dakar, Senegal view more

INDIA - Risk: Fines and delays for seafarers failing to submit a Yellow Fever vaccination certificate in Mumbai, India view more

EGYPT- Risk: Fines for fender damage claims in Egyptian ports view more

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC - Risk: Fines for unauthorised transit through marine reserve areas view more

ARGENTINA - Risk: Grounding in the Parana River, Argentina view more

PERU - Risk: Unexpected charges for sludge removal services at ports in Peru view more

SAUDI ARABIA & UAE Risk: Infection from Middle East Respiratory Syndrome - Corona Virus (MERS-CoV) view more

MEXICO - Risk: Shipper's surveyor forcing Masters to accept pre-prepared non-clausable mate's receipts at Veracruz, Mexico view more

URUGUAY - Risk: Fines and delays for non-compliance with Uruguayan Oil Spill Response Organisation (OSRO) contract requirements view more

AUSTRALIA - Risk: Navigation through the Great Barrier Reef and Torres Strait, Australia view more

ARGENTINA - Risk: Customs fines for short landing fertilizer cargoes in Argentina view more

ANGOLA - Risk: Fines, ship arrest and delays for carrying out non-approved bunkering operations in Angolan waters view more

LIBYA - Risk: United States Coast Guard imposes further conditions of entry for vessels arriving from Libyan ports view more

LIBYA - Risk: Ship arrest for loading banned illicit crude oil from Libya view more

HONG KONG - Risk: Fines for non-compliance with Hong Kong - Air Pollution Control (Ocean Going Vessels) (Fuel at Berth) Regulations view more

USA - Risk: Fines for non-compliance with MARPOL Annex VI within the US Emission Control Area view more

VENEZUELA - Risk: Self heating petroleum coke at Amuay Terminal, Venezuela view more

CAMEROON - Risk: Vessels grounding in the approaches to Douala port, Cameroon view more

CHINA - Risk: Fines following illegal discharges into the Bohai Sea and China's inland waterways view more

AUSTRALIA - Risk: Detentions and delays arising from Port State Control (PSC) inspections and non-compliance with MLC 2006 regulations view more

SOUTH AFRICA - Risk: Costs and consequences for repatriating stowaways at the port of Cape Town view more

UKRAINE - Risk: Ballast water sampling requirements, Ukraine view more

CHINA - Risk: The collection of tax from non-resident taxpayers engaged in international transportation business with China view more

SAUDI ARABIA - Risk: Potential shortage claims when loading bulk sulphur at Jubail, Saudi Arabia view more

COTE D'IVOIRE - Risk: Ship arrest as a result of paper shortage claims in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire view more

PAKISTAN - Risk: Ship arrest and customs fines as a result of fabricated coal cargo shortage claims in Karachi, Pakistan view more

BULGARIA - Risk: P&I claims arising from grain cargo contamination loaded at Varna, Bulgaria view more

ROMANIA - Risk: P&I claims arising from grain cargo contamination loaded at Constantza, Romania view more

CHINA - Risk: Navigation danger due to expansion of aquaculture at Lanshan, China view more

CANADA - Risk: Ice navigation in Canadian waters during the winter months view more

CHINA - Risk: Fines, Port State Control detentions and delays for breaching regulations for passing through the Qiongzhou Straits, China view more

COTE D'IVOIRE - Risk: Fines imposed by customs officials due to inaccuracies in customs documentation at Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire view more

VENEZUELA - Risk: Misdeclared metallic iron content of Direct Reduced Iron (DRI) cargoes at San Felix, Venezuela view more

MALAYSIA - Risk: Bauxite with a high moisture content loaded at Kuantan, Malaysia, may be prone to liquefaction view more

GABON - Risk: Fines imposed by customs officials due to inaccuracies in port clearance documentation at Port Gentil, Gabon view more

CHINA - Risk: Fertilizer loaded in Chinese ports susceptible to caking and contamination view more

COTE D'IVOIRE - Risk: Delays resulting from port officials' refusal to land stowaways at Abidjan and San Pedro, Cote d'Ivoire view more

CHINA - Risk: Danger to navigation due to sea ice in the Baohai Sea, China view more

KUWAIT - Risk: Claims arising from grain cargo shortages in Shuwaikh port, Kuwait view more

CHINA - Risk: Cargo claims and potential liquefaction of fluorspar cargoes in China view more

PAKISTAN - Risk: Bulk liquid cargo shortage claims in Karachi, Pakistan view more

BRAZIL - Risk: Bauxite with a high moisture content loaded at Trombetas, Brazil may be prone to liquefaction view more

SAUDI ARABIA - Risk: Grain cargo shortage claims at Saudi Arabian ports view more

ANGOLA - Risk: Damages and shortage claims for bagged rice cargoes to Luanda view more

INDONESIA - Risk: Potential mis-declaration of Indonesian nickel ore cargoes in Indonesia view more

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA - Risk: US Environmental Protection Agency fines for noncompliance with MARPOL Annex VI low sulphur content fuels. view more

UKRAINE - Risk: Black-listing and possible ship arrest resulting from previously visiting Crimean ports view more

THAILAND - Risk: Fines and delays as a result of loading/discharging dangerous goods without permission from Thailand's Marine Safety and Environment Bureau/Harbour Department view more

TURKEY - Risk: Fines for short landing of cargo at Turkish ports view more

HONG KONG - Risk: Fines for emitting dark smoke in the port of Hong Kong view more

INDONESIA - Risk: Fraudulent Port State Control (PSC) inspection charges in Indonesia view more

SIERRA LEONE - Risk: Issues associated with loading iron ore cargo from Pepel port and Freetown anchorage view more

GHANA - Risk: Bauxite with a high moisture content loaded at Takoradi may be prone to liquefaction view more

SIERRA LEONE - Risk: Problems associated with the loading of bauxite on the Sherbro River, Sierra Leone view more

SOUTH AFRICA - Risk: Costs and consequences for repatriating stowaways at the port of Durban view more

NORTH AMERICA - Risk: Delays due to the discovery of Asian Gypsy Moth in Canada and the USA view more

SUDAN - Risk: Regular shortage claims following the discharge of bulk wheat at Port Sudan view more

ALGERIA -Risk: Customs fines due to shortage claims for grain cargoes shipped to Algeria view more

INDIA - Risk: Cargo claims and potential liquefaction of iron ore cargoes in Goa, India view more

MEXICO - Risk: Delays, ship arrest and problems loading iron ore cargo in Mexican ports view more

MEXICO - Risk: Drug cartel activity and acts of violence in and around Mexican port cities view more

South America - Risk: Drug Trafficking throughout South America view more

SOUTH AFRICA - Risk: Ships anchoring in South African coastal waters are obliged to first obtain permission from the South African Maritime Safety Authority view more

YEMEN - Risk: Sanctions and the US Department of the Treasury Specially Designated Nationals List for Yemen view more

SENEGAL - Risk: Senegalese authorities forbid the landing of stowaways at the port of Dakar view more

CAMEROON - Risk: Fines and delays as a result of exaggerated cargo claims at the port of Douala view more

BENIN - Risk: Exaggerated shortage claims resulting in customs fines view more

YEMEN - Risk: Fines, delays and detention as a result of differences in oil record books and shipboard retention of oils, Yemen view more

YEMEN - Risk: Fabricated stevedore personal Injury claims in Yemeni ports view more

YEMEN - Risk: Fines, ship arrest and possible delays as a result of late reporting of Fixed and Floating Object (FFO) claims in Yemen view more

WEST AFRICA - Risk: Bagged rice shortage claims in West African ports view more

YEMEN - Risk: Ship security as a result of the civil war in Yemen view more

GHANA - Risk: Stowaways boarding or being discovered at Tema Port or Takoradi ports, Ghana view more

SIERRA LEONE - Risk: associated with discharging bulk rice at ports in Sierra Leone view more

JORDAN - Risk: Bulk cargo shortage claims in the port of Aqaba view more

LIBYA - Risk: status of, and security at, Libyan Ports view more

YEMEN - Risk: Ship arrest as a result of exaggerated cargo shortage claims in Yemen view more

AUSTRALIA - Risk: Possible ship detention by the Australian Maritime Safety Authority as a consequence of using non-approved navigation charts in Australian waters view more

COLOMBIA - Risk: Possible delays caused by the Colombian Navy carrying out routine anti-drug trafficking searches in Colombia's ports (Puerto Bolivar, Puerto Neuvo and Puerto Drummond) view more

LIBYA - Risk: Sanctions and US Treasury Specially Designated Nationals List, Libya view more

YEMEN - Risk: Unexpected expenses and fines arising from the shifting of vessels, arrival draught restrictions and exceeding time allotted for discharge in Hodeida view more

TURKEY - Risk: Issues associated with loading steel products in Turkish ports view more

SOUTH AFRICA - Risk: Delays caused by ship detentions due to the discovery of armaments on board merchant vessels in South Africa view more

TUNISA - Risk: P&I claims and customs fines arising from short landing of cargo in Tunisian ports. view more

SENEGAL - Risk: Senegalese authorities robustly impose customs fines on vessels calling at Dakar view more

SENEGAL - Risk: Restricted availability of bunkers at Dakar roads, Senegal view more

THAILAND - Risk: Problems associated with loading bulk and bagged sugar in Thailand view more

THAILAND - Risk: Old, damaged bagged rice from Thailand view more

THAILAND - Risk: Potential damage to bagged rice due to dunnaging in Thailand view more

NIGERIA – Risk: Nigerian navy arrest vessels employing the services of armed security guards view more

SUDAN - Risk: Fraudulent steel transactions to Port Sudan view more

TAIWAN - Risk: Damage to nets and equipment, safe transit of the coastal fishing zones of Taiwan view more

GUATEMALA - Risk: Nickel ore can liquefy due to excessive moisture content view more

ARGENTINA - Risk: Customs fines in Argentina relating to the misdeclaration of ship's stores view more

Joint War Committee Listed Area: Eritrea, but only South of 15º N view more

Joint War Committee Listed Area: Venezuela. view more

Joint War Committee Listed Area: Yemen view more

Joint War Committee Listed Area: Syria view more

Joint War Committee Listed Area: Saudi Arabia, excluding transit view more

Joint War Committee Listed Area: Lebanon view more

Joint War Committee Listed Area: Israel view more

Joint War Committee Listed Area: Iraq, including all Iraqi offshore terminals view more

Joint War Committee Listed Area: Iran view more

Joint War Committee Listed Area: The port of Jakarata view more

Joint War Committee Listed Area: Pakistan view more

Joint War Committee Listed Area: Togo view more

Joint War Committee Listed Area: Somalia view more

Joint War Committee Listed Area: Indian Ocean / Arabian Sea / Gulf of Aden / Gulf of Oman / Southern Red Sea view more

Joint War Committee Listed Area: Benin view more

Joint War Committee Listed Area: Nigeria view more

Joint War Committee Listed Area: Libya view more

Joint War Committee Listed Area: Gulf of Guinea, but only the waters of the Togolese, Beninese and Nigerian Exclusive Economic Zones north of Latitude 3° N view more

USA - Risk: merchant vessels subject to fines and severe delays due to illegal contraband carriage, particularly from the port of Miami and Port Everglades view more

CARIBBEAN - Risk: commercial vessels being used to traffic and smuggle contraband in the Caribbean Basin, particularly to and from the Port of Spain, Trinidad, the Bahamas, Puerto Rico and Jamaica view more

ECUADOR - Risk: Drug trafficking, theft and piracy at the Ecuadorian port of Guayaquil and Puerto Bolivar view more

SPAIN - Risk: vessels being used to traffic and/or smuggle contraband from North and West Africa though Algeciras (Spain) into European black markets view more

THE NETHERLANDS AND BELGIUM - Risk: vessels being used to traffic and/or smuggle contraband through the major shipping hubs of Antwerp and Rotterdam view more

LIBYA & SYRIA - Risk: Implications of the migrant crisis in the Mediterranean view more

Pirates operating out of Somalia view more

INDONESIA AND PHILIPPINES - Risk: nickel ore liquefaction due to excessive moisture content during voyages from the Philippines and Indonesia view more

INDONESIA - Threat: of theft from ships at anchor view more

BANGLADESH - Risk of theft from ships anchoring in Chittagong and Cox’s Bazar view more

Show all icons
Current Incidents
Enduring Risks
Listed Areas
Latest Incidents
13/06/2018 Posn 14.9 - 42.9

Background

The Saudi-led coalition intervening in Yemen’s civil war has opened an assault on the rebel-held port city of Hodeidah.

A source for the Houthi rebels on Wednesday (June 13) said their forces had attacked a barge being used by the coalition. It claimed the vessel had been hit by two missiles. There was no confirmation of the attack from the coalition.

Assessment and Analysis

Hodeidah has been in the hands of Houthi forces since the start of Yemen’s civil war in 2015.

The port lies on Yemen’s west coast near the southern end of the Red Sea, close to a trade route for oil tankers heading from the Middle East to Europe.

Houthi sources said in January 2018 that if coalition forces kept pushing towards Hodeidah they would consider blocking international navigation in the Red Sea.

They gave no details on how they would carry out such a move.

Hodeidah remains a key entry point for humanitarian aid. It is likely that any fighting in the port area will disrupt port operations.

Port workers told Reuters on Wednesday that five ships were docked at Hodeidah unloading goods, but no new entry permits would be issued due to the fighting.

Coalition forces have been quoted as saying they will try to keep the port running and that they will lift the import restrictions they have imposed once it is in their control.

A vessel that had been delivering food aid was attacked by gunman at an anchorage off Hodeidah on June 3. It is unclear who carried out the attack.

Waters off Yemen’s Red Sea and Gulf of Aden are considered a High Risk Area (HRA).

The situation is fluid and threats to shipping can change rapidly and ship operators should carry out detailed risk assessments for each voyage into the area using the latest threat information. Useful sources include MSC-HOA, NATO Shipping Centre, UKMTO, MARLO and IMB.

Reported and analysed by North and Gray Page

05/06/2018 UTC Posn 6.17 - 3.21

Background

Two intruders were spotted on the forecastle of a bulk carrier in Lagos Anchorage, Nigeria.

They were seen by an armed security guard who fired a warning shot.

The intruders fled and a search of the vessel showed that some ship stores were missing.

The incident happened early in the morning of June 3 during the hours of darkness.

The intruders had used a hook attached to a rope to clamber on-board.

Assessment and Analysis

Vessels visiting Lagos should take precautions against intruders.

Among other things, crew members should maintain a good visual and radar watch for the approach of small craft.

Other precautions should include illuminating the ship’s sides and securing and stowing away ladders and ropes.

Reported and analysed by North and Gray Page

05/06/2018 Posn 15 - 42

Background

A vessel delivering food aid to Yemen has been attacked by gunman while waiting at an anchorage off the port of Hodeidah.

The incident happened on June 3, some 32 nautical miles (nm) from the coast.

The VOS THEIA was being used by the United Nations World Food Programme (WFP).

Reports say it had unloaded its cargo in Hodeidah and was waiting in the anchorage for permission from the Saudi-led military coalition to leave.

A spokesperson for the WFP said an unidentified group in a skiff had opened fire on the vessel.

Some reports said the shots started a fire on the VOS THEIA but the spokeswomen, in a statement to Reuters, said the vessel and crew were safe and that there were no obvious signs of damage.

Assessment and Analysis

This was the second account of an attack on June 3 on a vessel off the Yemeni port of Hodeidah. It is not clear if the two reports were describing the same incident.

The maritime security information provider, United Kingdom Maritime Trade Operations (UKMTO), had earlier carried a report that a skiff had fired on an unnamed merchant vessel 50 nm from the port.

Both reports came against the background of Yemen’s ongoing civil war.

The Saudi-led military coalition has been drawing in on Hodeidah, although it is unclear if it intends to take it.

Rebel Houthi forces, who hold the port, have threatened to block shipping in the Red Sea if Hodeidah is directly threatened.

Waters off Yemen’s Red Sea and Gulf of Aden are considered a High Risk Area (HRA).

The situation is fluid and threats to shipping can change rapidly.

Ship operators should carry out detailed risk assessments for each voyage into the area using the latest threat information.

Useful sources include MSC-HOA, NATO Shipping Centre, UKMTO, MARLO and IMB.

Reported and analysed by North and Gray Page

04/06/2018 UTC Posn 14.57 - 42.05

Background

A merchant vessel has reportedly come under fire from a skiff in the southern waters of the Red Sea, some 50 nautical miles (nm) off the coast of Yemen.

The incident was reported by email to the maritime security information provider, United Kingdom Maritime Trade Operations (UKMTO).

The attack took place shortly after nightfall on June 3, five nautical miles (nm) west of Jazair Az Zubayr Island.

There were six people in the skiff, according to the report. It approached the merchant vessel and opened fire.

The vessel’s armed security team returned fire and the skiff moved away.

There were no reports of any injuries and the merchant vessel was later reported to be safe.

 

Assessment and Analysis

Waters off Yemen’s Red Sea and Gulf of Aden are considered a High Risk Area (HRA).

Yemen’s civil war has now entered its fourth year and the resulting instability has threatened the region’s maritime security.

The nearest mainland port to Jazair Az Zubayr Island is Hodeidah.

The port is currently in the hands of Houthi rebels but a Saudi-led coalition force was reported last month to be closing in on the city.

In January 2018, Houthi forces had threatened to block traffic in the Red Sea if the Saudi-led coalition advanced on Hodeidah.

It is not clear if the reported attack on a merchant vessel on June 3 had any direct link to the Yemen conflict.

All vessels entering the HRA should register with the Maritime Security Centre – Horn of Africa (MSC-HOA).

They should also use the Maritime Security Transit Corridor (MSTC) set up by US-led Combined Maritime Forces (CMF) in the Western Indian Ocean and Red Sea regions.

The situation in Yemen is fluid and the threat to shipping can change rapidly.

Ship operators should carry out detailed risk assessments for each voyage into the area using the latest threat information.

Useful sources include MSC-HOA, NATO Shipping Centre, UKMTO, MARLO and IMB.

Reported and analysed by North and Gray Page

23/05/2018 UTC Posn 3.46 - 1.30

Background

There has been an attempted boarding of a product tanker in the Gulf of Guinea.

The incident happened shortly after midnight on May 22, some 140 nautical miles (nm) south of the Togolese port of Lome.

The International Maritime Bureau (IMB) said seven suspected pirates in a skiff drew alongside the tanker, which at the time was drifting.

An alarm was raised and the skiff was seen to move away. No crew members were hurt.

The master of the product tanker reported a vessel in the area which could have been acting as a mother ship for pirate operations.

Assessment and Analysis

Attacks on shipping in Gulf of Guinea continue with concerning regularity.

All waters in the Gulf, particularly off Nigeria, should be seen as dangerous.

Vessels are advised to keep strict watches, especially at night.

They are also advised to take ‘hardening’ measures and to carefully monitor the approach of unknown skiffs.

Attacks can take place inshore and well outside coastal waters.

Ships should avoid slow steaming and minimise time spent in anchorages.

When under attack, evasive action and the use of citadels have sometimes proved effective countermeasures.

Reported and analysed by North and Gray Page

22/05/2018 LC Posn -5.52 - 106.04

Background

There have been two reports of robbers boarding vessels off Indonesia.

In the most serious incident three robbers armed with knives boarded a bulk carrier at Merak Anchorage in Banten Province.

The incident happened during the hours of darkness early on May 20.

As reported by the International Maritime Bureau (IMB) the robbers threatened a crew member, entered the ship’s engine room, stole ship’s spares and escaped.

The other incident occurred off the Indonesian island of Great Karimun, some 30 kilometres southwest of Singapore.

The IMB report said six robbers boarded a tanker while it was underway. The time was shortly after midnight, also on May 20.

They were spotted by a crew member and the ship’s master raised the alarm.

The robbers fled and are believed to have left empty-handed.

Assessment and Analysis

Thieves regularly target ships in Indonesian ports and anchorages.

They board ships either alone or in gangs and generally operate at night. They are often armed with knives.

It is rare for crew members to be assault and in most cases intruders flee when confronted.

Ships are advised to use patrolled-anchorages whenever possible and to maintain heightened vigilance both while underway and at anchor or at berth.

Reported and analysed by North and Gray Page

14/05/2018 UTC Posn 14.67 - 41.85

Background

There has been an explosion on a vessel carrying wheat to a Houthi-controlled port in Yemen.

Some reports said the ship had been struck by a missile, although that claim has not been verified.

The incident occurred at dusk on May 10 on board the Turkish-flagged bulk carrier INCE INEBOLU.

The vessel was anchored 70 nautical miles off Hodeidah, waiting to proceed to Saleef.

Houthi-controlled media quoted Houthi officials as saying the ship had been struck by a missile fired from a Saudi coalition warplane.

Shipping sources said the cause of the explosion was unclear and that it could have been caused by an internal blast.

Pictures showed a hole close to the ship’s waterline with jagged edges curling outwards.

A spokesman for the Saudi-led coalition said its investigators had boarded the vessel and had concluded there had been an explosion inside the ship.

There were no reports of injuries.

Assessment and Analysis

The Saudi-led coalition has carried out thousands of air strikes against Houthi targets as part of its intervention in the Yemen conflict.

It has blockaded Houthi controlled ports, with varying intensity, but has no record of targeting commercial vessels at sea.

Houthi forces control territory in the west of Yemen, including much of the country’s Red Sea coast.

Parts of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden have been designated a High Risk Area (HRA).

All vessels entering the HRA should register with the Maritime Security Centre – Horn of Africa (MSC-HOA).

They should also use the Maritime Security Transit Corridor (MSTC) set up by US-led Combined Maritime Forces (CMF) in the Western Indian Ocean and Red Sea regions.

Reported and analysed by North and Gray Page

02/05/2018 Posn 6.45 - -56.33

Background

Sixteen fishermen are missing feared dead after an attack on their boats off the coast of Suriname.

They were part of a group of 20 fishermen in four boats, according to a statement from the Surinamese Coast Guard.

Pirates attacked the boats on April 27, allegedly beating the fishermen with machetes before forcing them to jump into the sea.

According to reports in the Guyanese media, most of the fishermen were Guyanese nationals.

Assessment and Analysis

Small-scale piracy targeting fishing boats in the coastal waters and rivers of Suriname and its neighbour Guyana has proved an enduring problem.

Pirates have stolen engines and seized catches and occasionally used lethal violence.

In February 2018 the captain of a Surinamese vessel was killed by pirates when he put up resistance during a robbery.

There were also reports of fatal attacks in Suriname in 2017 and 2016.

It many cases pirates have forced fishermen to jump from their boats.

The scale and ferocity of the violence shown in the April 27 attack, however, was highly unusual.

As far back as 2016 police in Guyana and Suriname were pledging closer cooperation to improve border security and to reduce piracy and smuggling.

Reported and analysed by North and Gray Page